The baroreceptor reflex is the main acute response that protects against changes in the systemic arterial blood pressure.
The primary stretch sensors are located in the carotid sinus, with secondary sensors in the aortic arch.
Afferent nerve impulses are carried from the carotid sinus nerve to the brainstem via the glossopharyngeal nerves.
Increased stretch of the carotid sinus, caused by a rise in mean arterial pressure or pulse pressure, increases the action potential frequency in the carotid sinus nerve.
In the medulla oblongata, this input increases inhibition of sympathetic outflow and stimulates parasympathetic outflow. The opposite occurs when MAP or pulse pressure decreases and carotid sinus stretch is reduced
Where are the carotid baroreceptors located?
Bifurcation of common carotid arteries
What is the function of the carotid baroreceptors?
Minute to minute regulation of blood pressure
NB: Cranial nerve IX carries information from baroreceptors to the vasomotor center in the brainstem.