HIV-mediated direct cytopathicity (single cell killing) – infected CD4 cells die
HIV-mediated syncytia formation
Defect in CD4 T-cell regeneration in relation to the rate of destruction
Maintenance of homeostasis of total T-lymphocytes (decreased CD4, increasedCD8)
HIV-specific immune response (killing of virally infected and innocent cells)
Auto-immune mechanism
Programmed cell death (apoptosis)
Qualitative abnormalities (even the existing CD4 cells are dysfunctional)
Impaired expression of IL-2
Defective IL-2 and INF-Alfa production
Decreased help to B-cells in production of immunoglobulins